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Common Daycare Illnesses and Diseases


Allergies


Allergy is a disorder of the immune system often also referred to as atopy. Allergic reactions occur to environmental substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired, predictable and rapid. Strictly, allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity and is called type I (or immediate) hypersensitivity. It is characterized by excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophiles by a type of antibody, known as IgE, resulting in an extreme inflammatory response. Common allergic reactions include eczema, hives, hay fever, asthma, food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees. Symptoms of food allergy include abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, itchy skin, and swelling of the skin during hives or angioedema. Food allergies rarely cause respiratory (asthmatic) reactions, or rhinitis.[8] Insect stings, antibiotics and certain medicines produce a systemic allergic response that is also called anaphylaxis; multiple systems can be affected including the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the circulatory system.

Asthma


Asthma is a chronic condition involving the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers such as exposure to an environmental stimulant or allergen such as cold air, warm air, perfume, moist air, exercise or exertion, or emotional stress. In children, the most common triggers are viral illnesses such as those that cause the common cold. This airway narrowing causes symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

Bronchitis


Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi. Acute bronchitis is characterized by cough and sputum (phlegm) production and symptoms related to the obstruction of the airways by the inflamed airways and the phlegm, such as shortness of breath and wheezing. Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks. Bronchitis may be indicated by an expectorating cough (also known as a productive cough, i.e. one that produces sputum), shortness of breath (dyspnea) and wheezing. Occasionally chest pains, fever, and fatigue or malaise may also occur. Mucus is normally green or yellowish green. Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years.

Bronchiolitis, Viral


Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. The term usually refers to acute viral bronchiolitis, a common disease in infancy. This is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, also known as human pneumovirus).

Chicken Pox, Viral


Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It generally begins with conjunctival and catarrhal symptoms and then characteristic spots appearing in two or three waves, mainly on the body and head rather than the hands and becoming itchy raw pockmarks, small open sores which heal mostly without scarring. Chickenpox has a 10-21 day incubation period and is spread easily through aerosolized droplets from the nasopharynx of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash.

Rhinovirus (common cold)


Rhinoviruses are the most common viral infective agents in humans, and a causative agent of the common cold. Symptoms include sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and cough; sometimes accompanied by muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headache, muscle weakness, or loss of appetite.

Conjunctivitis (pink eye)


Conjunctivitis or most commonly called "Pink Eye" is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), most commonly due to an allergic reaction or an infection (usually bacterial, or viral). Symptoms include redness, irritation and watering of the eyes are symptoms common to all forms of conjunctivitis. Itch and the closing of the throat is variable.

Cryptosporidiosis


Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by a protozoan parasite. It is a disease spread through the fecal-oral route; the main symptom is self-limiting diarrhea in people with intact immune system. Symptoms appear from two to ten days after infection and last for up to two weeks or so. As well as watery diarrhea there is often stomach pains or cramps and a low fever. Some individuals are asymptomatic (have no symptoms) but are still infective and thus can pass on the infection to others. Even after symptoms have finally subsided that individual is still infective for some weeks.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)


Cytomegalovirus is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as HCMV or Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). Transmission of HCMV occurs from person to person through bodily fluids. Infection requires close, intimate contact with a person excreting the virus in their saliva, urine, or other bodily fluids.

Dysentery


Dysentery is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces and is typically the result of unsanitary water containing micro-organisms which cause significant inflammation of the intestinal lining. Symptoms include frequent passage of feces/stool, loose motion and in some cases associated vomiting. Variations depending on parasites can be frequent urge with high or low volume of stool, with or without some associated mucus and even blood.

Epiglottitis


Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis (the flap that sits at the base of the tongue), which keeps food from going into the trachea (windpipe). Epiglottitis typically affects children, and is associated with fever, difficulty swallowing, drooling, and stridor.

Fifth Disease


Fifth disease is one of several possible manifestations of infection by parvovirus B19. The disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slapcheek, slap face or slapped face. The bright red cheeks are a defining symptom of the infection in children (hence the name "slapped cheek disease"). Occasionally the rash will extend over the bridge of the nose or around the mouth. In addition to the red cheeks, children often develop a red, lacy rash on the rest of the body, with the upper arms and legs being the most common locations.

Gastroenteritis


Gastroenteritis refers to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine (see also gastritis and enteritis) and resulting in acute diarrhea. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, bloody stools, fainting and weakness.

Giardiasis


Giardiasis is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia. The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, including humans.Giardiasis is passed via the fecal-oral route. Primary routes are personal contact and contaminated water and food. People who spend time in institutional or day-care environments are more susceptible, as are travelers and those who consume improperly treated water. Symptoms include loss of appetite, lethargy, fever, explosive diarrhea, loose or watery stool, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting (uncommon), bloating, flatulence, and burping (often sulphurous). Symptoms typically begin 1–2 weeks after infection and may wane and reappear cyclically.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease


Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. HFMD usually affects infants and children, and is quite common. It is highly contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months. The usual incubation period is 3-7 days.Symptoms of HFMD include, fever 101F-103F, malaise, sore throat, painful oral lesions, non-itchy body rash, followed by sores with blisters on palms of hands and soles of feet, mouth ulcers, sores or blisters may be present on the buttocks of small children and infants. Not all symptoms may be present.

Hepatitis A


Hepatitis A is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by Hepatitis A virus, which is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route via contaminated food or drinking water. Symptoms can return over the following 6-9 months which include: fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, appetite loss, depression, jaundice, a yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, sharp pains in the right-upper quadrant of the abdomen and weight loss.

Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B virus infects the liver of hominoidae, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. It is a DNA virus and one of many unrelated viruses that cause viral hepatitis rus types. Symptoms of the acute illness caused by the virus include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and rarely, death.

Herpes simplex


Herpes symplex is a viral disease caused by Herpes simplex viruses. Oral herpes, colloquially called cold sores, is usually caused by the type 1 strain of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1).This virus can cause periods of active disease, presenting as blisters containing infectious virus particles that lasts 2-21 days and is followed by remission when the sores disappear. Herpes infections are largely asymptomatic, but when symptoms (lesions) appear, they will typically resolve within two weeks. Some symptoms that may also develop, include fever, sore throat, and painful ulcers.

Impetigo


Impetigo (sometimes impetaigo) is a superficial bacterial skin infection most common among children age 2-6 years. Impetigo is usually caused by the same streptococcus strain that causes strep throat. The infection is spread by direct contact with lesions or with nasal carriers. The incubation period is 1–3 days. Dried streptococci in the air are not infectious to intact skin. Signs or symptoms include one or more pimple-like lesions surrounded by reddened skin. Lesions fill with pus, then break down over 4–6 days and form a thick, honey-colored crust. Impetigo is often associated with insect bites, cuts, and other forms of trauma to the skin. Itching is common. Impetigo also causes flu-like symptoms which may cause tiredness, weakness of muscles, headaches and vomiting.

Influenza (Flu)


Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses).Typically influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, faeces and blood. Infections also occur through contact with these body fluids or with contaminated surfaces. In humans, common symptoms of the disease are the chills, then fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.

Laryngitis


Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. It causes hoarse voice or the complete loss of the voice because of irritation to the vocal folds (vocal cords). Laryngitis can be caused by any of these; viral infection, bacterial or fungal infection, inflammation due to overuse of the vocal cords, excessive coughing, excessive alcohol consumption. The most common symptoms are impaired speech, ranging from a raspy hoarseness to the total loss of ability to speak, except at a whisper. Other symptoms can include: dry, sore throat, coughing, which can be a symptom of, or a factor in causing laryngitis; difficulty swallowing; sensation of swelling in the area of the larynx; cold or flu-like symptoms (which, like a cough, may also be the causing factor for laryngitis;) swollen lymph glands in the throat, chest, or face; fever.

Lice (pediculosis)


Lice (singular: louse), also known as fly babies, are an order of over 3,000 species of wingless insects; three of which are classified as human disease agents. Lice feed on skin debris, feather parts, sebaceous secretions and blood. A louse egg is commonly called a nit. Lice attach their eggs to their host's hair with specialized saliva which results in a bond that is very difficult to separate without specialized products. Living lice eggs tend to be pale white. Dead lice eggs are orangeish.

Measles


Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus. Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious. 90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. The classical symptoms of measles include a fever for at least three days and the three C's, cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The fever may reach up to 104° .The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the head before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The rash is said to "stain", changing colour from red to dark brown, before disappearing.

Meningitis, Bacterial


In "meningococcal" meningitis (i.e. meningitis caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis), a rapidly-spreading petechial rash is typical, and may precede other symptoms. The rash consists of numerous small, irregular purple or red spots on the trunk, lower extremities, mucous membranes, conjunctiva, and occasionally on the palms of hands and soles of feet.

Meningitis, Viral


Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. Meningitis is also proven to be easily contagious among people living in close quarters. While some forms of meningitis are mild and resolve on their own, meningitis is a potentially serious condition owing to the proximity of the inflammation to the brain and spinal cord. Severe headache is the most common symptom of meningitis (87%) followed by neck stiffness (83%). The classic triad of diagnostic signs consists of neck stiffness (being unable to flex the neck forward), sudden High fever and altered mental status. Other signs commonly associated with meningitis are the inability to tolerate bright light, inability to tolerate loud noises, irritability and delirium (in small children) and seizures (in 20-40% of cases). In infants (0-6 months), swelling of the fontanelle (soft spot) may be present.

Mumps


Mumps is a viral disease of humans. Symptoms include painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation. Painful testicular swelling and rash may also occur. While symptoms are generally not severe in children, the symptoms in teenagers and adults can be more severe and complications such as infertility or subfertility are relatively common, although still rare in absolute terms. The more common symptoms of mumps are swelling of the parotid glands (or parotitis) in 60–70% of infections and 95% of patients with symptoms. It can occur on one side (unilateral) or both sides (bilateral), and pain behind the lower jaw when chewing. It also includes fever, headache, sore throat, orchitis, referring to painful inflammation of the testicle. Males past puberty who develop mumps have a 30 percent risk of orchitis. Other symptoms of mumps can include sore face and/or ears and occasionally in more serious cases, loss of voice.

Otitis media (ear infection)


Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection. Otitis media occurs in the area between the ear drum (the end of the outer ear) and the inner ear, including a duct known as the Eustachian tube. It is one of the two categories of ear inflammation that can underly what is commonly called an earache, the other being otitis externa. Otitis media is very common in childhood, with the average toddler having two to three episodes a year, almost always accompanied by a viral upper respiratory infection (URI), mostly the common cold. The rhinoviruses (nose viruses) that cause the common cold infect the Eustachian tube that goes from the back of the nose to the middle ear, causing swelling and compromise of pressure equalization, which is the normal function of the tube.

Parvovirus B19


Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human parvovirus. Parvovirus B19 is best known for causing a childhood exanthem called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum. The virus is primarily spread by infected respiratory droplets; blood-borne transmission, however, has been reported. The secondary attack risk for exposed household persons is about 50%, and about half of that for classroom contacts. B19 symptoms begins some six days after exposure and last about a week. Infected patients with normal immune systems are contagious before becoming symptomatic, but probably not after then.

Pharyngitis (sore throat)


Pharyngitis is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. Infection of the tonsils and/or larynx may occur simultaneously. About 90% of cases are caused by viral infection, with the remainder caused by bacterial infection and, in rare cases, oral thrush (fungal candidiasis e.g. in babies). Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by irritation from elements such as pollutants or chemical substances. The pharynx is often the first site of infection for many infectious diseases such as the common cold. This is because viruses and bacteria often settle in this part of the body after a person inhales dust or water vapour containing the microorganism. Infection can also arise when a person touches their nose or mouth after having touched an object shared with another person with the disease. The foreign invader reproduces rapidly after settling on the body tissue.

Pinworms


The pinworm is a parasitic roundworm of the phylum Nematoda. The adult pinworm male is 1–4 mm in length, while the adult female is 8–13 mm and possesses the long, pin-shaped posterior for which the worm is named. The human pinworm is commonly found in children. The pinworm lives in the lower part of the small intestine and the upper part of the colon. It is found worldwide, and causes the most common infection enterobiasis in humans.

After mating, the male dies. The female migrates to the anus and emerges, usually during the night, to deposit about 10,000 to 20,000 eggs in the perianal area (around the anus). She then secretes a substance which causes a very strong itching sensation, inciting the host to scratch the area and thus transfer some of the eggs to the fingers. Eggs can also be transferred to cloth, toys, and the bathtub.

Once ingested orally, the larvae hatch and migrate back to the intestine, growing to maturity in 30-45 days. The eggs can survive for 2 to 3 weeks on their own outside of the human body. In some cases, the larvae will hatch in the peri-anal area and travel back inside the anus, up the rectum, and back into the intestines where they mature.

Pneumococcal disease


Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. Despite the name, the organism causes many types of infection other than pneumonia, including acute sinusitis, otitis media, meningitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess. S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and children, and is one of the top two isolates found in otitis media. S. pneumoniae is normally found in the nasopharynx of 5-10% of healthy adults, and 20-40% of healthy children. It can be found in higher amounts in certain environments, especially those where people are spending a great deal of time in close proximity to each other (day cares, army barracks).

Pneumonia


Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the lung. Frequently, it is described as lung parenchyma/alveolar inflammation and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid. Pneumonia can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs. Its cause may also be officially described as idiopathic—that is, unknown—when infectious causes have been excluded. Typical symptoms associated with pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.

Rotavirus


Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae. It is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. By the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once. However, with each infection, immunity develops and subsequent infections are less severe. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a mild to severe disease characterized by vomiting, watery diarrhea, and low-grade fever. Once a child is infected by the virus, there is an incubation period of about two days before symptoms appear. Symptoms often start with vomiting followed by four to eight days of profuse diarrhea. Dehydration is more common in rotavirus infection than in most of those caused by bacterial pathogens, and is the most common cause of death related to rotavirus infection.

Ringworm


Ringworm, is an infection of the skin, characterized by a reddish to brownish raised or bumpy patch of skin that may be lighter in the center, giving the appearance of a 'ring'. Contrary to its name, ringworm is not caused by a worm but by parasitic fungi. It can exist anywhere on the body. Ringworm is very common, especially among children, and may be spread by skin-to-skin contact, as well as via contact with contaminated items such as hairbrushes or through the use of the same toilet seat as an infected individual. Ringworm spreads readily, as those infected are contagious even before they show symptoms of the disease. Participants in contact sports such as wrestling have a risk of contracting the fungal infection through skin-to-skin contact. The best known sign of ringworm in people is the appearance of one or more red raised itchy patches with defined edges, not unlike the herald rash of Pityriasis rosea. These patches are often lighter in the center, taking on the appearance of a ring with hyperpigmentation around the circumference caused by an increase in melanin. If the infected area involves the scalp or beard area, then bald patches may become evident. The affected area may become itchy for periods of time.

RSV


Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. RSV is a member of the paramyxovirus subfamily Pneumovirinae. RSV causes respiratory tract infections in patients of all ages. It is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and childhood. In temperate climates there is an annual epidemic during the winter months. In tropical climates, infection is most common during the rainy season. In the United States, 60% of infants are infected during their first RSV season, and nearly all children will have been infected with the virus by 2-3 years of age. For most people, RSV produces only mild symptoms, often indistinguishable from common colds and minor illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control consider RSV to be the "most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants and children under 1 year of age. For some children, RSV can cause bronchiolitis, leading to severe respiratory illness requiring hospitalization and, rarely, causing death.

Salmonellosis (Salmonella)


Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 6 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts 3 to 7 days. The bacterium induces responses in the animal that it is infecting and this is probably what causes the symptoms rather than any direct toxin. They are usually gastrointestinal including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea with mucus. Headache, fatigue and rose spots are also possible. These symptoms can be severe especially in the old and very young. Symptoms last generally up to a week, and can appear 6 to 72 hours after bacterium ingestion.

Scabies


Scabies is a transmissible ectoparasite skin infection characterized by superficial burrows, intense itching and secondary infection. The word scabies comes from the Latin word for "scratch". It takes approximately 4-6 weeks to develop symptoms after initial infestation. Therefore, a person may have been contagious for at least a month before being diagnosed. This means that person might have passed scabies to anyone at that time with whom they had close contact. Someone who sleeps in the same room with a person with scabies has a high possibility of having scabies as well, although they may not show symptoms. A tiny mite (0.3 to 0.9 mm) may sometimes be seen at the end of a burrow. Most burrows occur in the webs of fingers, flexing surfaces of the wrists, around elbows and armpits, the areolae of the breasts in females and on genitals of males, along the belt line, and on the lower buttocks. The face usually does not become involved in adults.

Shigellosis


Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery in its most severe manifestation, is a foodborne illness caused by infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella. It accounts for less than 10% of the reported outbreaks of foodborne illness in the USA. Shigella can be transmitted through food. Food known to do so includes salads (potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, and chicken), raw vegetables, milk and dairy products, and meat. Contamination of these foods is usually through the fecal-oral route. Fecally contaminated water and unsanitary handling by food handlers are the most common causes of contamination. The causative organism is frequently found in water polluted with human feces, and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The usual mode of transmission is directly person-to-person hand-to-mouth, in the setting of poor hygiene among children. Symptoms may range from mild abdominal discomfort to full-blown dysentery characterized by cramps, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, blood, pus, or mucus in stools or tenesmus. Onset time is 12 to 50 hours.

SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)


Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year. Typically the infant is found dead after having been put to bed, and exhibits no signs of having suffered. Very little is certain about the possible causes of SIDS, and there is no proven method for prevention. Although studies have identified risk factors for SIDS, such as putting infants to bed on their stomachs, there has been little understanding of the syndrome's biological cause or causes. The frequency of SIDS appears to be a strong function of infant sex and the age, ethnicity, and the education and socio-economic status of the parents.

Sinusitis


Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. Newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis, taking into account the thought that inflammation of the sinuses cannot occur without some inflammation of the nose as well (rhinitis). Sinusitis can be acute (going on less than four weeks), subacute (4-12 weeks) or chronic (going on for 12 weeks or more). All three types of sinusitis have similar symptoms, and are thus often difficult to distinguish.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (strep throat)


Streptococcal pharyngitis or streptococcal sore throat is a form of group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx and possibly the larynx and tonsils. Streptococcal pharyngitis usually appears suddenly with a severe sore throat that may make talking or swallowing painful. In severe cases, breathing may be impaired. Symptoms may include, sudden and severe sore throat, red and enlarged tonsils, yellow and white patches in the throat. Difficulty swallowing, tender cervical lymphadenopathy and fever of 101° or greater.

Tapeworm


Cestoda is the class of parasitic flatworms, commonly called tapeworms, that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the bodies of various animals as juveniles. Adult worms absorb food predigested by the host, so the worms have no need for a digestive tract or a mouth. Large tapeworms are made almost entirely of reproductive structures with a small "head" for attachment. Symptoms vary widely, depending on the species causing the infestation. Symptoms may include upper abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. However, infestations are usually asymptomatic. Worm segments or eggs may be found in the stool of an infected person.

Tonsillitis


Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. There are 3 main types of tonsillitis: acute, subacute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral (75%) in origin. Subacute tonsillitis (which can last between 3 weeks and 3 months) is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces. Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is almost always bacterial. Symptoms of tonsillitis include a severe sore throat (which may be experienced as referred pain to the ears), painful/difficult swallowing, headache, fever and chills, and change in voice causing a 'hot potato' voice. Tonsillitis is characterized by signs of red, swollen tonsils which may have a purulent exudative coating of white patches (i.e. pus). In addition there may be enlarged and tender neck cervical lymph nodes.

Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium


Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis most commonly attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, bones, joints and even the skin. When the disease becomes active, 75% of the cases are pulmonary TB. When people suffering from active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, kiss, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5 µm in diameter. A single sneeze, for instance, can release up to 40,000 droplets. Each one of these droplets may transmit the disease, since the infectious dose of tuberculosis is very low and the inhalation of just a single bacterium can cause a new infectionSymptoms include chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive, prolonged cough for more than three weeks. Systemic symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, pallor, and often a tendency to fatigue very easily.

Pertussis (whooping cough)


Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from the characteristic severe hacking cough followed by intake of breath that sounds like 'whoop'; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. Although many medical sources describe the whoop as "high-pitched," this is generally the case with infected babies and children only, not adults. Adults and adolescents are the primary reservoir for pertussis. Pertussis is spread by contact with airborne discharges from the mucous membranes of infected people, who are most contagious during the catarrhal stage. Because the symptoms during the catarrhal stage are nonspecific, pertussis is usually not diagnosed until the appearance of the characteristic cough of the paroxysmal stage.

*Information referenced from Wikipedia Dictionary
 
 
 
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